A gene is the carrier of hereditary information, which is located in every human cell. It describes a section on DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA deoxyribonucleic acid) that contains genetic information. For the cells, a gene is, so to speak, a certain code that they decipher. As a result, they gain information that they primarily need for the construction of proteins (protein biosynthesis).
Proteins (proteins) consist of amino acids. They determine the structure and function of each living cell of the body and control biochemical processes of metabolism. The sequence of amino acids is defined in DNA – it determines how proteins are composed and how the human organism is structured.
In classical genetics, a gene is a unit of hereditary information that ensures the expression of a trait (e.g. eye color, body size). From a molecular genetic point of view, you understand a gene as a certain section on the genetic material (usually DNA ) of a living being. The section contains encrypted information for the production of a protein or an RNA molecule.
With the help of protein biosynthesis, your cells can decipher the information. The resulting proteins can then in turn influence your cell metabolism or your external appearance (phenotype). The totality of the hereditary information of a cell is the genome.
From a chemical point of view, the DNA of a cell consists of four different basic building blocks: the so-called nucleotides adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine. In a cell, these four building blocks (A, C, G, T) – linked to form a long chain – form all the information that the cell needs to form proteins.
The entire genetic information or DNA of a cell is also called a genome. The genome contains all the information necessary for the development of a living being. The entire filamentous structure inside the cell, which contains hereditary material and proteins, is called a chromosome. How the information of a section of the DNA is obtained depends on the different sequence of the four building blocks A, C, G and T – the so–called gene sequence.
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