In many articles and nature documentaries, the word biome is called, but, what is a biome? It sounds like something to do with ecosystems, something to do with life (hence the prefix bio-). However, it is more than a connection with biology and natural sciences, it is a concept that is used in climatology.
It is very important to know the properties of biomes, because this is the only way to understand how ecosystems really work.
Biome is defined as a usually large geographical area where there are groups of animals and plants that can remain there due to their adaptability to the environment. That is, they are able to live in the environment that surrounds them, even if the conditions change.
The variable that determines the area of distribution of animal and plant species is the climate. The conditions created by the climate favor the formation of a certain type of soil. Thanks to the type of soil, certain species of plants can arise, and, in turn, various species of animals can develop. Therefore, it is the climate that determines the biome.
Biome, bioregion, according to the geobotanist and ecologist H. Walter, the “basic unit of large ecological systems”. This corresponds to a large, manageable landscape unit with its characteristic vegetation and fauna ( see Fig. ). The B. is characterized by a uniform climate type (zonobiome), soil type (pedobiome) or by a mountain massif (orobiome). Within the nine zonobiomes equatorial, tropical, subtropical, Mediterranean, warm-tempered, nemoral, continental, boreal and polar, the following (sub-) biomes are distinguished, among others: tundra, northern and humid-tempered coniferous forest-B. (coniferous forest zone; coniferous forest), temperate broadleaf forest-B. (broadleaf forest zone), temperate grass-B., evergreen subtropical broadleaf forest- B., tropical savannas-B. (savannah), hard-leaved shrubs-B. (hard-leaved vegetation), tropical shrub and deciduous forest-B. and tropical rainforest-B. (rainforest).
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